Subject: Post Peak-Oil – Fate of Non-Petro States

Introduction
What happens to those countries who have no fossil fuels within their borders? What energy alternatives do they have? How long do these countries have to develop their alternatives?

Global Fossil Fuels
Fossil fuels are irregularly distributed with no regard for political boundaries. Coal, oil, and natural gas are distributed within geological, not state boundaries. For example, the state of Minnesota has never produced oil but its western neighbor North Dakota is a major oil producer, due to the presence of the buried Williston Basin, a huge dirt-filled depression that slops over into South Dakota, Montana, and Canada but NOT Minnesota. The basin has trapped oil, natural gas, lignite, and coal; giving rise to industry and revenue in the area. Minnesota has had to… Continue reading

Waste Water Management Economics as Part of the Global Oil Sector

Introduction

Economics of Oil and Gas waste water is separate from the economics of oil exploration and production yet they are closely yoked. Waste water is not sold like natural gas, crude oil, or other hydrocarbons produced by an oil well and therefore a Salt Water Disposal (SWD) well’s revenue is largely immune from global product price cycles. Nevertheless, global cycles of oil economics wield a strong arm over oil and gas investments and it is these investments that give rise to oil and gas wastes. The blog below looks at the current global collapse of oil price and its possible effects on SWD projects. The blog suggests several strategic options that might be considered by SWD operators during the current global cycle.

 

Global… Continue reading

Fracking Companies Must Come Clean with New Brunswick: Questions Must Be Answered

Introduction

The Canadian Province of New Brunswick embraces several significant masses of brittle, highly carboniferous shales, attractive targets for exploitation by companies seeking natural gas production. A question worth asking is the following: can this resource be exploited in an environmentally safe manner? A trivial analysis and easy answer could be NO! or YES! We need to look at the local geological details that exist in New Brunswick —this is not North Dakota, this is not Texas. The following blog looks at some of the issues and specific questions that need to be asked and answered before the public can assess environmental and societal impacts.

 

New Brunswick Shale Resource

Lower Carboniferous shales in New Brunswick contain high concentrations of organic material – remains of… Continue reading

SWDI 博文:油田废弃污染物的经济学分析

2015年9月2日(中文译者:DAVID YANG)

 

引言

咸水处理研究所(SWDI)致力于开发更高效、更利于环境保护的油田污水管理方法,以期使油田业主与投资人获得更大效益。

与此同时,我们亦帮助咸水处理承包方整合其它废弃物处置机遇以增加获利及提升其客户之价值。兹将其中一些有利之机遇分述如下。

 

初步咸水处理法

一口初步的盈利型咸水处理井(SWD)可以收置生产污水、返流油污混合物、钻井污水,以及来自上游活动的其它水体。污水的清浊程度因其所含的固态物、油类、以及其它化学品类而异。咸水处理承包方先过滤污水,然后将过滤后的净水泵入其处理井。分离出的油类可以回收出售,而固态物则予以填埋,污水用油罐车或管线输送至承包方工地。SWD客户方通常还有其它液体或固体废物需要综合管理以保证油井正常营业,而SWD承包方可以通过接受并处置这些废物而获利。

 

经济学分析

咸水处理井(SWD)最大的废物源就是生产污水,它能提供稳定的收入来源;不过,收入与利润也能通过扩展设备以收进并处理油田常见的其它废物类别而予以考量。下表所列为相关之废物类别:

废料 收购价* 相对处理成本 潜在赢利空间
生产污水 $0.50/bbl 很低
返流油污混合物 $1.50/bbl
油泥 $3.50/bbl
废酸 $1.50/bbl
油罐冲洗废水 $1.50/bbl
管泵垢物 $3.50/bbl
受污雨水 $1.50/bbl

*这些价格均为油田所常见,但并不意味着普适。不过,其相对价值是一致的。

显而易见,利润空间最低的是生产污水。在大多数地方,处理设备都能接受生产污水,从而导致低收购价与低利润。如上所述,实际价格因地而异,可从$0.40/bbl 左右到超过$2.00/bbl。其它废物类别鲜有竞争者,相应地收购价格就高些。

 

其它液体废物

污水生成有多种来源:安装、运营油气井时遇到雨水冲积,或在处理与生产期间积于油罐。每一种情况下均产生水、油、聚合物以及固态颗粒物的混合。为保护处理井起见,这些成份物须予以分离。最高效的分离方法是离心法和滤压法。

 

固体废物

油气的钻探与生产会产生大量的固体废物,包括油井撑开剂、管道垢物、颗粒悬浮物、油泥,以及其它固体碎片。油气生产商要面对这些废物,还要予以处理;所花费的大量资金主要用于专业化的废物处理设备。这些废物类别可以在SWD (咸水处理井) 的预处理阶段予以处理。例如,油箱油泥可以加入到返流油污混合物中,其中的聚合物予以分解,颗粒物与油类予以去除,水则收置于咸水处理井。尽管还需要更多的处理步骤,总的来说,边际(废物收进)价格越大,边际成本就越小。

 

投资资金的使用

投资者,无论是积极的油田开采者,还是低调的非工业合伙人,都想知道SWD承包方把他们的投资资金用于何处。下表所列是所需设备的大致价格。

设备 用途 设备成本 安装成本
SWD表面设备 生产废水的常规处理 $1,000,000 $250,000
离心分离机 油/水/颗粒物的分离 $750,000 $100,000
滤压装置 液体中颗粒物的分离 $250,000 $50,000
炮筒形油水分离装置 油水分离 $75,000 $5,000
附加罐类 废物原料的分类盛放 $100,000 $10,000

 

上述报价成本是过去六个月内的均价,有波动;但是,这些资讯可以用于拟定营业计划,或用于估算现有咸水处理井的扩展增容方案。表中第一栏仅用作与其它设备成本相比较,以现今市场而言,一口大型SWD将耗资 $1.25 ~ 2.0 mil, 不包括钻井费用。安装一套油/水分离或油/水/颗粒物分离系统,需要足够的废物收进量,以消化如此昂贵的资本费用(CAPEX)。另一方面,增补一套“炮筒型油水分离罐”装置,仅占用较小部分的资本费用,只稍稍增加废物收进量即可补偿成本费用。

上面的成本表,也可以换个思路予以解读:SWD 承包方可以在大约三年内(约1000天)通过收入净增值平衡其支出。一台离心设备需要增加至少$850/天的净收入,或是344 bbls返流物/油泥混合物($2.50/bbl)。这在某些地方或许不可能,在另一些地方则可以实现。增加一套“炮筒型油水分离罐”装置,仅需要增加$80/天的净收入,或是大约53 bbls/天的返流物。

 

小结

商业尺度的SWD (咸水处理井) 代表着当今烃燃料行业的良好投资方向。预期的SWD业主或投资者,如果在恰当选址的地方增加废物处理设备,就会有利润可图。增大处理容量能吸引更多的客户,从而获得更大的废物收进总量供SWD之用。

 

如欲咨询,敬请联系以下作者:

Bruce G. Langhus, PhD

SWDI

58 Front St

Gagetown, NB, Canada  E5M 1A1

Phone: 506-488-1808

Email:  blanghus@odinoilandgas.com

Blogsite:  saltwaterdisposalinstitute.com